How can I pass a list as a command-line argument with argparse?

Question:

I am trying to pass a list as an argument to a command line program. Is there an argparse option to pass a list as option?

parser.add_argument('-l', '--list',
                      type=list, action='store',
                      dest='list',
                      help='<Required> Set flag',
                      required=True)

Script is called like below

python test.py -l "265340 268738 270774 270817"
Asked By: carte blanche

||

Answers:

SHORT ANSWER

Use the nargs option or the 'append' setting of the action option (depending on how you want the user interface to behave).

nargs

parser.add_argument('-l','--list', nargs='+', help='<Required> Set flag', required=True)
# Use like:
# python arg.py -l 1234 2345 3456 4567

nargs='+' takes 1 or more arguments, nargs='*' takes zero or more.

append

parser.add_argument('-l','--list', action='append', help='<Required> Set flag', required=True)
# Use like:
# python arg.py -l 1234 -l 2345 -l 3456 -l 4567

With append you provide the option multiple times to build up the list.

Don’t use type=list!!! – There is probably no situation where you would want to use type=list with argparse. Ever.


LONG ANSWER

Let’s take a look in more detail at some of the different ways one might try to do this, and the end result.

import argparse

parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()

# By default it will fail with multiple arguments.
parser.add_argument('--default')

# Telling the type to be a list will also fail for multiple arguments,
# but give incorrect results for a single argument.
parser.add_argument('--list-type', type=list)

# This will allow you to provide multiple arguments, but you will get
# a list of lists which is not desired.
parser.add_argument('--list-type-nargs', type=list, nargs='+')

# This is the correct way to handle accepting multiple arguments.
# '+' == 1 or more.
# '*' == 0 or more.
# '?' == 0 or 1.
# An int is an explicit number of arguments to accept.
parser.add_argument('--nargs', nargs='+')

# To make the input integers
parser.add_argument('--nargs-int-type', nargs='+', type=int)

# An alternate way to accept multiple inputs, but you must
# provide the flag once per input. Of course, you can use
# type=int here if you want.
parser.add_argument('--append-action', action='append')

# To show the results of the given option to screen.
for _, value in parser.parse_args()._get_kwargs():
    if value is not None:
        print(value)

Here is the output you can expect:

$ python arg.py --default 1234 2345 3456 4567
...
arg.py: error: unrecognized arguments: 2345 3456 4567

$ python arg.py --list-type 1234 2345 3456 4567
...
arg.py: error: unrecognized arguments: 2345 3456 4567

$ # Quotes won't help here... 
$ python arg.py --list-type "1234 2345 3456 4567"
['1', '2', '3', '4', ' ', '2', '3', '4', '5', ' ', '3', '4', '5', '6', ' ', '4', '5', '6', '7']

$ python arg.py --list-type-nargs 1234 2345 3456 4567
[['1', '2', '3', '4'], ['2', '3', '4', '5'], ['3', '4', '5', '6'], ['4', '5', '6', '7']]

$ python arg.py --nargs 1234 2345 3456 4567
['1234', '2345', '3456', '4567']

$ python arg.py --nargs-int-type 1234 2345 3456 4567
[1234, 2345, 3456, 4567]

$ # Negative numbers are handled perfectly fine out of the box.
$ python arg.py --nargs-int-type -1234 2345 -3456 4567
[-1234, 2345, -3456, 4567]

$ python arg.py --append-action 1234 --append-action 2345 --append-action 3456 --append-action 4567
['1234', '2345', '3456', '4567']

Takeaways:

  • Use nargs or action='append'
    • nargs can be more straightforward from a user perspective, but it can be unintuitive if there are positional arguments because argparse can’t tell what should be a positional argument and what belongs to the nargs; if you have positional arguments then action='append' may end up being a better choice.
    • The above is only true if nargs is given '*', '+', or '?'. If you provide an integer number (such as 4) then there will be no problem mixing options with nargs and positional arguments because argparse will know exactly how many values to expect for the option.
  • Don’t use quotes on the command line1
  • Don’t use type=list, as it will return a list of lists
    • This happens because under the hood argparse uses the value of type to coerce each individual given argument you your chosen type, not the aggregate of all arguments.
    • You can use type=int (or whatever) to get a list of ints (or whatever)

1: I don’t mean in general.. I mean using quotes to pass a list to argparse is not what you want.

Answered By: SethMMorton

Additionally to nargs, you might want to use choices if you know the list in advance:

>>> parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(prog='game.py')
>>> parser.add_argument('move', choices=['rock', 'paper', 'scissors'])
>>> parser.parse_args(['rock'])
Namespace(move='rock')
>>> parser.parse_args(['fire'])
usage: game.py [-h] {rock,paper,scissors}
game.py: error: argument move: invalid choice: 'fire' (choose from 'rock',
'paper', 'scissors')
Answered By: Martin Thoma

I prefer passing a delimited string which I parse later in the script. The reasons for this are; the list can be of any type int or str, and sometimes using nargs I run into problems if there are multiple optional arguments and positional arguments.

parser = ArgumentParser()
parser.add_argument('-l', '--list', help='delimited list input', type=str)
args = parser.parse_args()
my_list = [int(item) for item in args.list.split(',')]

Then,

python test.py -l "265340,268738,270774,270817" [other arguments]

or,

python test.py -l 265340,268738,270774,270817 [other arguments]

will work fine. The delimiter can be a space, too, which would though enforce quotes around the argument value like in the example in the question.

Or you can use a lambda type as suggested in the comments by Chepner:

parser.add_argument('-l', '--list', help='delimited list input', 
    type=lambda s: [int(item) for item in s.split(',')])
Answered By: dojuba

Using nargs parameter in argparse’s add_argument method

I use nargs='*' as an add_argument parameter. I specifically used nargs='*' to the option to pick defaults if I am not passing any explicit arguments

Including a code snippet as example:

Example: temp_args1.py

Please Note: The below sample code is written in python3. By changing the print statement format, can run in python2

#!/usr/local/bin/python3.6

from argparse import ArgumentParser

description = 'testing for passing multiple arguments and to get list of args'
parser = ArgumentParser(description=description)
parser.add_argument('-i', '--item', action='store', dest='alist',
                    type=str, nargs='*', default=['item1', 'item2', 'item3'],
                    help="Examples: -i item1 item2, -i item3")
opts = parser.parse_args()

print("List of items: {}".format(opts.alist))

Note: I am collecting multiple string arguments that gets stored in the list – opts.alist
If you want list of integers, change the type parameter on parser.add_argument to int

Execution Result:

python3.6 temp_agrs1.py -i item5 item6 item7
List of items: ['item5', 'item6', 'item7']

python3.6 temp_agrs1.py -i item10
List of items: ['item10']

python3.6 temp_agrs1.py
List of items: ['item1', 'item2', 'item3']
Answered By: Py_minion

If you are intending to make a single switch take multiple parameters, then you use nargs='+'. If your example ‘-l’ is actually taking integers:

a = argparse.ArgumentParser()
a.add_argument(
    '-l', '--list',  # either of this switches
    nargs='+',       # one or more parameters to this switch
    type=int,        # /parameters/ are ints
    dest='lst',      # store in 'lst'.
    default=[],      # since we're not specifying required.
)

print a.parse_args("-l 123 234 345 456".split(' '))
print a.parse_args("-l 123 -l=234 -l345 --list 456".split(' '))

Produces

Namespace(lst=[123, 234, 345, 456])
Namespace(lst=[456])  # Attention!

If you specify the same argument multiple times, the default action ('store') replaces the existing data.

The alternative is to use the append action:

a = argparse.ArgumentParser()
a.add_argument(
    '-l', '--list',  # either of this switches
    type=int,        # /parameters/ are ints
    dest='lst',      # store in 'lst'.
    default=[],      # since we're not specifying required.
    action='append', # add to the list instead of replacing it
)

print a.parse_args("-l 123 -l=234 -l345 --list 456".split(' '))

Which produces

Namespace(lst=[123, 234, 345, 456])

Or you can write a custom handler/action to parse comma-separated values so that you could do

-l 123,234,345 -l 456
Answered By: kfsone

In add_argument(), type is just a callable object that receives string and returns option value.

import ast

def arg_as_list(s):                                                            
    v = ast.literal_eval(s)                                                    
    if type(v) is not list:                                                    
        raise argparse.ArgumentTypeError("Argument "%s" is not a list" % (s))
    return v                                                                   


def foo():
    parser.add_argument("--list", type=arg_as_list, default=[],
                        help="List of values")

This will allow to:

$ ./tool --list "[1,2,3,4]"
Answered By: wonder.mice

If you have a nested list where the inner lists have different types and lengths and you would like to preserve the type, e.g.,

[[1, 2], ["foo", "bar"], [3.14, "baz", 20]]

then you can use the solution proposed by @sam-mason to this question, shown below:

from argparse import ArgumentParser
import json

parser = ArgumentParser()
parser.add_argument('-l', type=json.loads)
parser.parse_args(['-l', '[[1,2],["foo","bar"],[3.14,"baz",20]]'])

which gives:

Namespace(l=[[1, 2], ['foo', 'bar'], [3.14, 'baz', 20]])
Answered By: Meysam Sadeghi

I want to handle passing multiple lists, integer values and strings.

Helpful link => How to pass a Bash variable to Python?

def main(args):
    my_args = []
    for arg in args:
        if arg.startswith("[") and arg.endswith("]"):
            arg = arg.replace("[", "").replace("]", "")
            my_args.append(arg.split(","))
        else:
            my_args.append(arg)

    print(my_args)


if __name__ == "__main__":
    import sys
    main(sys.argv[1:])

Order is not important. If you want to pass a list just do as in between "[" and "] and seperate them using a comma.

Then,

python test.py my_string 3 "[1,2]" "[3,4,5]"

Output => ['my_string', '3', ['1', '2'], ['3', '4', '5']], my_args variable contains the arguments in order.

Answered By: alper

I think the most elegant solution is to pass a lambda function to “type”, as mentioned by Chepner. In addition to this, if you do not know beforehand what the delimiter of your list will be, you can also pass multiple delimiters to re.split:

# python3 test.py -l "abc xyz, 123"

import re
import argparse

parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description='Process a list.')
parser.add_argument('-l', '--list',
                    type=lambda s: re.split(' |, ', s),
                    required=True,
                    help='comma or space delimited list of characters')

args = parser.parse_args()
print(args.list)


# Output: ['abc', 'xyz', '123']
Answered By: Cloudkollektiv

You can parse the list as a string and use of the eval builtin function to read it as a list. In this case, you will have to put single quotes into double quote (or the way around) in order to ensure successful string parse.

# declare the list arg as a string
parser.add_argument('-l', '--list', type=str)

# parse
args = parser.parse()

# turn the 'list' string argument into a list object
args.list = eval(args.list)
print(list)
print(type(list))

Testing:

python list_arg.py --list "[1, 2, 3]"

[1, 2, 3]
<class 'list'>
Answered By: Leonard

Edit: incorporated the improvement suggested by Katu to remove the separate parsing step.

JSON List Solution

A nice way to handle passing lists (also dicts) in via the command line is by using json.

# parse_list.py
import argparse
import json

parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
# note type arg, used to load json string
parser.add_argument('-l', '--list', type=json.loads)
args = parser.parse_args()
print(args.list)

Example Usage

$ python parse_list.py -l "[265340, 268738, 270774, 270817]"
[265340, 268738, 270774, 270817]
Answered By: lunguini

Do be advised that if you pass action='append' along with the default argument, Argparse will attempt to append to supplied default values rather than replacing the default value, which you may or may not expect.

Here is one action='append example given in the Argparse Docs.
In this case things will work as expected:

>> import argparse
>> parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
>> parser.add_argument('--foo', action='append')
>> parser.parse_args('--foo 1 --foo 2'.split())

Out[2]: Namespace(foo=['1', '2'])

However, if you opt to provide a default value, Argparse’s "append" action will attempt to append to the supplied defaults, rather than replacing the default values:

import argparse
REASONABLE_DEFAULTS = ['3', '4']
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
parser.add_argument('--foo', default=REASONABLE_DEFAULTS,action='append')
parser.parse_args('--foo 1 --foo 2'.split())

Out[6]: Namespace(foo=['3', '4', '1', '2'])

If you were expecting Argparse to replace the default values — such as passing in a tuple as a default, rather than a list — this can lead to some confusing errors:

import argparse
REASONABLE_DEFAULTS = ('3', '4')
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
parser.add_argument('--foo', default=REASONABLE_DEFAULTS,action='append')
parser.parse_args('--foo 1 --foo 2'.split())

AttributeError: 'tuple' object has no attribute 'append'

There is a bug tracking this unexpected behavior, but since it dates from 2012, it’s not likely to get resolved.

Answered By: JS.

Applying chepner’s comment to Lunguini’s answer:

import argparse, json                                                                                            
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()                                                                               
parser.add_argument('-l', '--list', type=lambda a: json.loads(a), default="[]",                                  
                    help="String formatted as list wrapped in []")                                               
args = parser.parse_args()                                                                                       
print(args.list)                                                                                                 

Usage:

$ python parse_list.py -l "[265340, 268738, 270774, 270817]"
[265340, 268738, 270774, 270817]
Answered By: Katu
Categories: questions Tags: ,
Answers are sorted by their score. The answer accepted by the question owner as the best is marked with
at the top-right corner.