Recursion: how to avoid Python set changed set during iteration RuntimeError


Background and Problem Description:

I have some code that solves the graph coloring problem (broadly defined as the problem of assigning “colors” to an undirected graph, making sure that no two vertices connected by an edge have the same color). I’m trying to implement a solution using constraint propagation to improve on the efficiency of a standard recursive backtracking algorithm, but am running into the following error:

  File "", 
  line 99, in solve
  for color in[var]:
  RuntimeError: Set changed size during iteration

Here, for each vertex, I keep a set of possible particular values for that particular vertex: = { var: set(self.colors) for var in self.vars }

After I make an assignment, I propagate this constraint to the neighboring domains, to limit the search space:

  for key in node.neighbors:          # list of keys corresponding to adjacent vertices
      if color in[key]:  # remove now to prune possible choices

This isn’t where the actual error is thrown (in my code, I indicate where the problem is in a try-except block), but may be the source of the problem.

My Question:

Do I have the right idea, here, if not the right implementation? More to the point, how can I fix this? Also, is it necessary to keep a separate domains dictionary? Or could we make domain a property of each node in the graph?

My Code:

Here’s the solve function where this code is called:

def solve(self):

    uncolored = [var for var in self.vars if[var].color == None]
    if len(uncolored) == 0:
        return True

    var  = min(uncolored, key = lambda x: len([var]))
    node =[var]
    old  = { var: set([var]) for var in self.vars }

    for color in[var]:

        if not self._valid(var, color):
[var].color = color
        for key in node.neighbors:

            if color in[key]:

            if self.solve():
                return True
            print('happening now')
[var].color = None = old

    return False

My implementation uses a Node object:

class Solver:

    class Node:

        def __init__(self, var, neighbors, color = None, domain = set()):

            self.var       = var
            self.neighbors = neighbors
            self.color     = color
            self.domain    = domain

        def __str__(self):
            return str((self.var, self.color))

    def __init__(self, graph, K):

        self.vars    = sorted( graph.keys(), key = lambda x: len(graph[x]), reverse = True )  # sort by number of links; start with most constrained
        self.colors  = range(K)     = { var: self.Node(var, graph[var]) for var in self.vars } = { var: set(self.colors)           for var in self.vars }

Here are two other functions that are used/are helpful:

def validate(self):

    for var in self.vars:
        node =[var]

        for key in node.neighbors:
            if node.color ==[key].color:
                return False

    return True

def _valid(self, var, color):

    node =[var]

    for key in node.neighbors:

        if[key].color == None:

        if[key].color == color:
            return False

    return True

Data and Example for which the Code is Failing:

The example graph I’m using can be found here.

The function for reading the data:

def read_and_make_graph(input_data):

    lines = input_data.split('n')

    first_line = lines[0].split()
    node_count = int(first_line[0])
    edge_count = int(first_line[1])

    graph = {}
    for i in range(1, edge_count + 1):
        line  = lines[i]
        parts = line.split()
        node, edge = int(parts[0]), int(parts[1])

        if node in graph:

        if edge in graph:

        if node not in graph:
            graph[node] = {edge}

        if edge not in graph:
            graph[edge] = {node}

    return graph

It should be called as follows:

file_location = 'C:\Users\danisg\Desktop\coloring\data\gc_50_3'
input_data_file = open(file_location, 'r')
input_data = ''.join(input_data_file.readlines())

graph  = read_and_make_graph(input_data)
solver = Solver(graph, 6)  # a 6 coloring IS possible

print(solver.solve())      # True if we solved; False if we didn't
Asked By: rookie



I think the problem is here:

for color in[var]:

    if not self._valid(var, color):
        continue[var].color = color
    for key in node.neighbors:

        if color in[key]:
  [key].remove(color)  # This is potentially bad.

if key == var when[key].remove(color) is called, you change the size of the set you’re currently iterating over. You can avoid this by using

for color in[var].copy():

Using copy() will allow you to iterate over a copy of the set, while removing items from the original.

Answered By: dano