pandas dataframe columns scaling with sklearn

Question:

I have a pandas dataframe with mixed type columns, and I’d like to apply sklearn’s min_max_scaler to some of the columns. Ideally, I’d like to do these transformations in place, but haven’t figured out a way to do that yet. I’ve written the following code that works:

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
from sklearn import preprocessing

scaler = preprocessing.MinMaxScaler()

dfTest = pd.DataFrame({'A':[14.00,90.20,90.95,96.27,91.21],'B':[103.02,107.26,110.35,114.23,114.68], 'C':['big','small','big','small','small']})
min_max_scaler = preprocessing.MinMaxScaler()

def scaleColumns(df, cols_to_scale):
    for col in cols_to_scale:
        df[col] = pd.DataFrame(min_max_scaler.fit_transform(pd.DataFrame(dfTest[col])),columns=[col])
    return df

dfTest

    A   B   C
0    14.00   103.02  big
1    90.20   107.26  small
2    90.95   110.35  big
3    96.27   114.23  small
4    91.21   114.68  small

scaled_df = scaleColumns(dfTest,['A','B'])
scaled_df

A   B   C
0    0.000000    0.000000    big
1    0.926219    0.363636    small
2    0.935335    0.628645    big
3    1.000000    0.961407    small
4    0.938495    1.000000    small

I’m curious if this is the preferred/most efficient way to do this transformation. Is there a way I could use df.apply that would be better?

I’m also surprised I can’t get the following code to work:

bad_output = min_max_scaler.fit_transform(dfTest['A'])

If I pass an entire dataframe to the scaler it works:

dfTest2 = dfTest.drop('C', axis = 1)
good_output = min_max_scaler.fit_transform(dfTest2)
good_output

I’m confused why passing a series to the scaler fails. In my full working code above I had hoped to just pass a series to the scaler then set the dataframe column = to the scaled series.

Asked By: flyingmeatball

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Answers:

You can do it using pandas only:

In [235]:
dfTest = pd.DataFrame({'A':[14.00,90.20,90.95,96.27,91.21],'B':[103.02,107.26,110.35,114.23,114.68], 'C':['big','small','big','small','small']})
df = dfTest[['A', 'B']]
df_norm = (df - df.min()) / (df.max() - df.min())
print df_norm
print pd.concat((df_norm, dfTest.C),1)

          A         B
0  0.000000  0.000000
1  0.926219  0.363636
2  0.935335  0.628645
3  1.000000  0.961407
4  0.938495  1.000000
          A         B      C
0  0.000000  0.000000    big
1  0.926219  0.363636  small
2  0.935335  0.628645    big
3  1.000000  0.961407  small
4  0.938495  1.000000  small
Answered By: CT Zhu

Like this?

dfTest = pd.DataFrame({
           'A':[14.00,90.20,90.95,96.27,91.21],
           'B':[103.02,107.26,110.35,114.23,114.68], 
           'C':['big','small','big','small','small']
         })
dfTest[['A','B']] = dfTest[['A','B']].apply(
                           lambda x: MinMaxScaler().fit_transform(x))
dfTest

    A           B           C
0   0.000000    0.000000    big
1   0.926219    0.363636    small
2   0.935335    0.628645    big
3   1.000000    0.961407    small
4   0.938495    1.000000    small
Answered By: Eric Czech

I am not sure if previous versions of pandas prevented this but now the following snippet works perfectly for me and produces exactly what you want without having to use apply

>>> import pandas as pd
>>> from sklearn.preprocessing import MinMaxScaler


>>> scaler = MinMaxScaler()

>>> dfTest = pd.DataFrame({'A':[14.00,90.20,90.95,96.27,91.21],
                           'B':[103.02,107.26,110.35,114.23,114.68],
                           'C':['big','small','big','small','small']})

>>> dfTest[['A', 'B']] = scaler.fit_transform(dfTest[['A', 'B']])

>>> dfTest
          A         B      C
0  0.000000  0.000000    big
1  0.926219  0.363636  small
2  0.935335  0.628645    big
3  1.000000  0.961407  small
4  0.938495  1.000000  small
Answered By: LetsPlayYahtzee

As it is being mentioned in pir’s comment – the .apply(lambda el: scale.fit_transform(el)) method will produce the following warning:

DeprecationWarning: Passing 1d arrays as data is deprecated in 0.17
and will raise ValueError in 0.19. Reshape your data either using
X.reshape(-1, 1) if your data has a single feature or X.reshape(1, -1)
if it contains a single sample.

Converting your columns to numpy arrays should do the job (I prefer StandardScaler):

from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler
scale = StandardScaler()

dfTest[['A','B','C']] = scale.fit_transform(dfTest[['A','B','C']].as_matrix())

Edit Nov 2018 (Tested for pandas 0.23.4)–

As Rob Murray mentions in the comments, in the current (v0.23.4) version of pandas .as_matrix() returns FutureWarning. Therefore, it should be replaced by .values:

from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler
scaler = StandardScaler()

scaler.fit_transform(dfTest[['A','B']].values)

Edit May 2019 (Tested for pandas 0.24.2)–

As joelostblom mentions in the comments, “Since 0.24.0, it is recommended to use .to_numpy() instead of .values.”

Updated example:

import pandas as pd
from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler
scaler = StandardScaler()
dfTest = pd.DataFrame({
               'A':[14.00,90.20,90.95,96.27,91.21],
               'B':[103.02,107.26,110.35,114.23,114.68],
               'C':['big','small','big','small','small']
             })
dfTest[['A', 'B']] = scaler.fit_transform(dfTest[['A','B']].to_numpy())
dfTest
      A         B      C
0 -1.995290 -1.571117    big
1  0.436356 -0.603995  small
2  0.460289  0.100818    big
3  0.630058  0.985826  small
4  0.468586  1.088469  small
Answered By: Low Yield Bond
df = pd.DataFrame(scale.fit_transform(df.values), columns=df.columns, index=df.index)

This should work without depreciation warnings.

Answered By: athlonshi

I know it’s a very old comment, but still:

Instead of using single bracket (dfTest['A']), use double brackets (dfTest[['A']]).

i.e: min_max_scaler.fit_transform(dfTest[['A']]).

I believe this will give the desired result.

Answered By: WAN

(Tested for pandas 1.0.5)
Based on @athlonshi answer (it had ValueError: could not convert string to float: ‘big’, on C column), full working example without warning:

import pandas as pd
from sklearn.preprocessing import MinMaxScaler
scale = preprocessing.MinMaxScaler()

df = pd.DataFrame({
           'A':[14.00,90.20,90.95,96.27,91.21],
           'B':[103.02,107.26,110.35,114.23,114.68], 
           'C':['big','small','big','small','small']
         })
print(df)
df[["A","B"]] = pd.DataFrame(scale.fit_transform(df[["A","B"]].values), columns=["A","B"], index=df.index)
print(df)

       A       B      C
0  14.00  103.02    big
1  90.20  107.26  small
2  90.95  110.35    big
3  96.27  114.23  small
4  91.21  114.68  small
          A         B      C
0  0.000000  0.000000    big
1  0.926219  0.363636  small
2  0.935335  0.628645    big
3  1.000000  0.961407  small
4  0.938495  1.000000  small
Answered By: Ricardo Rendich