I tried reading the documentation for
numpy.where(), but I’m still confused.
What should I pass for the
y values? When I pass only
condition, what does the result mean and how can I use it? What about when I pass all three?
I found How does python numpy.where() work? but it didn’t answer my question because it seems to be about the implementation rather than about how to use it. Numpy where() on a 2D matrix also didn’t explain things for me; I’m looking for a step-by-step explanation, rather than a how-to guide for a specific case.
Please include examples with both 1D and 2D source data.
After fiddling around for a while, I figured things out, and am posting them here hoping it will help others.
np.where is like asking “tell me where in this array, entries satisfy a given condition“.
>>> a = np.arange(5,10) >>> np.where(a < 8) # tell me where in a, entries are < 8 (array([0, 1, 2]),) # answer: entries indexed by 0, 1, 2
It can also be used to get entries in array that satisfy the condition:
>>> a[np.where(a < 8)] array([5, 6, 7]) # selects from a entries 0, 1, 2
a is a 2d array,
np.where() returns an array of row idx’s, and an array of col idx’s:
>>> a = np.arange(4,10).reshape(2,3) array([[4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9]]) >>> np.where(a > 8) (array(1), array(2))
As in the 1d case, we can use
np.where() to get entries in the 2d array that satisfy the condition:
>>> a[np.where(a > 8)] # selects from a entries 0, 1, 2
a is 1d,
np.where() still returns an array of row idx’s and an array of col idx’s, but columns are of length 1, so latter is empty array.
Here is a little more fun. I’ve found that very often NumPy does exactly what I wish it would do – sometimes it’s faster for me to just try things than it is to read the docs. Actually a mixture of both is best.
I think your answer is fine (and it’s OK to accept it if you like). This is just “extra”.
import numpy as np a = np.arange(4,10).reshape(2,3) wh = np.where(a>7) gt = a>7 x = np.where(gt) print "wh: ", wh print "gt: ", gt print "x: ", x
wh: (array([1, 1]), array([1, 2])) gt: [[False False False] [False True True]] x: (array([1, 1]), array([1, 2]))
print "a[wh]: ", a[wh] print "a[gt] ", a[gt] print "a[x]: ", a[x]
a[wh]: [8 9] a[gt] [8 9] a[x]: [8 9]